The Impact of Climate Change on Migration Patterns of Rural Women in Marange, Zimbabwe. (2006-2016)
The paper looks at the impact of climate change on migration patterns of women in Marange, Zimbabwe between 2006 and 2016. Correlational research design was used. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A sample of 384 households was selected using a systematic deliberate convenience sampling technique. Focus group discussions, direct observation, desk research, a questionnaire survey and key informant interviews were used to collect data. The SPSS version 12 software was used to analyse quantitative data, while themes were developed for qualitative data. The results established that the major push factors for migration were due to the negative impact of climate change, particularly prolonged drought (94%) and hot temperatures (88%). Locally, migrants settled at water sources, wetlands, river banks and pasture lands with the worst affected areas being Mpudzi, Odzi, Burma Valley and Vumba. These new settlements posed social, economic, and administrative challenges and generated natural resource use conflicts at local level. Internationally, migrants settled in Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia. It emerged that young and single women (18-25 years) migrate more and permanently than older and married (>25 years) who were seasonal migrants. Women from large families (5-9 members) migrated more than those from smaller families (<3 members). The study concluded that the impact of climate change especially prolonged drought increases migration of young and single women from large families. It recommended an investment in infrastructure that promote irrigation and employment creation for locals in the diamond mining field to diversify their livelihood options and reduce outward migration of women
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